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Please respond to each of the Discussions with 3 APA references no older than 5 years old.Student 1Ruth Nyasimi TNThe Inclusion of Nurses in the Systems Development Life CycleThe systems development life cycle (SDLC) is simply a conceptual model which is used in project management that describes all stages which are involved in an information systems development project. Each stage of the SDLC is critical to ensure the successful implementation of new health information systems (Garcia-Dia et al., 2019). It is important to include nurses in each step of the SDCL implementation since they play a critical role in ensuring that the project is designed to meet the organizational objectives. Failure to include nurses in the SDCL can have fatal consequences for the patients, and organizations.Nurses are more informed on how information systems can be used to improve patient outcomes and safety. Any situation in which nurses are excluded can lead to significant consequences. Firstly, failure to include nurses can lead to a project that is unable to address the staff and patient needs. Nurses are the only healthcare staffs who spend more time with patients and have a lot of bedside experience. Hence, failure to include them can result in a healthcare information system that is unable to improve the care given to patients (McGonagall & Mastrian, 2015).Secondly, in the implementation phase, the design of the project is revealed and people can give opinions on the applications. If nurses are not included in this phase, the system development can be unfamiliar and ineffective and within the short term, it can be considered incompatible and mismatching with the clinical care offered. Therefore, according to Thomas et al (2016), allowing nurses to interact with systems and understand how it works is important since it helps them to navigate through and even assist other professionals who may experience difficulties.Thirdly, especially the testing phase is critically important in the SDCL since it ensures the IT systems are functional. According to Zytkowsi et al. (2016), excluding nurses at this phase has consequences since it can lead to the development of a system that does not support other roles of patient care or a system with potential delays in clinical care. Besides, if nurses are not included in this stage, the system can fail to evaluate and support other patient roles. Lastly, once the system has been implemented, there must be a plan on how to carry out maintenance hence when nurses are excluded in this phase, any changes made can cause delays in operating the system resulting in delays in patient care.In a different light, the inclusion of nurses in SDCL will have several benefits. For example, including them in SDCL will provide nurses with an opportunity to connect with the system and develop a personal connection with it as they become driven to serve patients and seek to enhance treatment hence improving outcomes (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2015). Failure to include them means that they will have their first encounter with the system when it has been implemented and this will create inconveniences. For example, some nurses will have no capacity to use the new system and hence will be limited to using it if not trained soon.The organization I work for is planning to integrate a new health information system and it is unfortunate I was not included in the planning and selection process. The failure to include nurses has the potential impact on the organization such as being unable to operate the new system which makes care delivery effective. The system had design flaws that could have been captured if nurses had been involved in the early stages and feelings of dissatisfaction as nurses feel confused. Therefore, due to the significant role played by nurses in SDCL, the administration should appreciate their participation by including them in all processes of implementation.ReferencesGarcia-Dia, M. J., Chan, A. Y., & Park, Y. S. (2019). Project Integration Management and Systems Development Life Cycle: System Maintenance. Project Management in Nursing Informatics, 323.McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K.G. (2015). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.Thomas, T. W., Seifert, P. C., & Joyner, J. C. (2016). Registered nurses leading innovative changes. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 21(3).Zytkowsi, M., Paschke, S., McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. (2015). Administrative information systems. In D. McGonigle & K. G. Mastrian (Eds.), Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (3rd ed., pp. 187-200). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. Inclusion of Nurses in the Systems Development Life Cycle.Student 2Idu Iroajanma TNMcGonigle & Mastrian (2017) states that Software development life cycle (SDLC) is the method that is used to develop and deliver effective information system. The most important thing in this process is assembling the right team to manage the development. There are different methodologies that have been developed to guide the process of SDLC.  Some of the methodologies include waterfall model, agile model and spiral model. Each of these models has a particular life that they use. This process can be done within an organization, outsourced or can be executed using two different approaches.The process of SDLC includes planning, analysis, designing, implementation and post-implementation. The planning stage involves identifying the problems that need to be solved, looking at different choices and ways to solve the problem, checking the resources. The analysis stage is prioritizing the needs of the project, reviving the project and looking at possible solutions and alternative. This stage also examines the workflow. The design stage is the construction and operation of the system that has been chosen. It may include the software, hardware, networking and interface. The implementation stage is the testing of the system, customizing it to the organization requirement and installing it. The post implementation stage is maintaining the system. Making sure that it is working as anticipated (Walsh & Johnson, 2001).According to Fourie (2000) the role of the nurse differs at different stages of SDLC progress. It ranges from working with different interdisciplinary teams to fine a good project, checking for the correct requirement and evaluating the chosen designs. Most health care organizations do not involve nurses in the planning, analyzing and building stages. Nurses and other healthcare providers are involved in the implementation stage. This makes it hard sometimes for them to adapt easily to the new system. There should be more involvement of healthcare providers in the planning stages because they are the ones that use the system.ReferencesFourie, I. (2000). The information systems development life cycle: A first course in information systems. The Electronic Library, 18(1), 70-71. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fscholarly-journals%2Finformation-systems-development-life-cycle-first%2Fdocview%2F218251923%2Fse-2%3Faccountid%3D14872McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. (2017). Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of Knowledge. In Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of Knowledge (4th ed., p. 176). Jones & Bartlett Learning.Walsh, B., & Johnson, G. A. (2001). Validation: Never an endpoint: A systems development life cycle approach to good clinical practice. Drug Information Journal, 35(3), 809. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fscholarly-journals%2Fvalidation-never-endpoint-systems-development%2Fdocview%2F275157563%2Fse-2%3Faccountid%3D14872Student 3Joel Sepulveda EBPOne of the most challenging processes to perform is, at the same time, the simplest to do in case many have not noticed it. It is about communicating an idea, and although it is something that each of us does daily, it is not when we establish a specific topic that must raise a continuous idea. All research work must be presented, discussed professionally, and based on the concept you want to project.Therefore, I understand that the best way to disseminate or present research is by publishing peer-reviewed journals and using a presentation in a professional organization through a podium. Both forms are, in my opinion, the most widespread since they are the most accessible access to the public and health professionals (Neira-Fernandez et al., 2021). On the one hand, through the journal, the research work and the EBP policy that I wish to implement would be observed by health professionals and could be evaluated and discussed. While through a personal presentation on a podium in a professional organization could be presented as a more dynamic vehicle and an exchange of ideas that could even serve as an example of leadership (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2018). However, I think that between the two options, the presentation of a professional organization on a podium to present an EBP would be the least appropriate. The reason for this is because it lends itself to only being detailed information and not a guide to be followed, in addition to provoking a continuous flow of opinions and discussions that, in the end, would bring effective communication but not an alternative to follow by the fact of being seen as a simple presentation.Moreover, even if the presentation is in oral form or through a journal, several barriers can be observed in communicating and disseminating the required information. Among them are the lack of understanding of the professional language to be used, the lack of projection of the proposed material, and the distribution of the policy to be raised (Al-Kalaldeh et al., 2021). With the lack of language understanding, it is impossible to present the idea that you want to raise, and with it, the meaning of the main idea of the EBP is lost. To improve these barriers, you must find a renowned and prestigious journal area that is quickly accessible and easy as PUBMED, MEDLINE, SCIELO, or fast search engine places to be seen (Gomez Fedor, 2016). As for other alternatives, a language that is not far-fetched but scholarly for understanding every health professional can be established.ReferencesAl-Kalaldeh, M., Amro, N., Qtait, M., & Alwawi, A. (2020). Barriers to effective nurse-patient communication in the emergency department. Emergency nurse: the journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association, 28(3), 29–35. https://doi.org/10.7748/en.2020.e1969Gómez Fedor, S.J. (2016). La Comunicación. Salus, 20(3), 5-6. Retrieved on October 4, 2022. From http://ve.scielo.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1316-71382016000300002&lng=es&tlng=es.Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2018). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.Neira-Fernández, K. D., Gaitán-Lee, L., & Gómez-Ramírez, O. J. (2021). Health science research barriers and facilitators in the midst of the COVID-19 crisis: scoping review. Barreras y facilitadores para la investigación en ciencias de la salud durante la crisis del COVID-19: una revisión de alcance. Revista colombiana de obstetricia y ginecologia, 72(4), 377–395. https://doi.org/10.18597/rcog.3788Student 4Sandslia Lima EBPDeveloping a Culture of Evidence-Based PracticeI would use a unit-level presentation and a poster presentation. This would be a useful approach to sharing the knowledge I have gathered from my studies. I can impart my knowledge to the clinic’s doctors, nurses. I would be educating my coworkers on how to take better care of patients who are pregnant. I will finish my presentation and then be available to answer any questions they may have. Using the unit-level presentation, I can personally share my suggestions for how to improve the situation that currently exists inside our organization. I can present my views using bullet points and visual aids in a poster presentation. This would paint a clear picture of the modifications I am proposing based on the available evidence (Hagan et al., 2017). At the national level, I would be least likely to employ the podium presentation. This is due to the fact that I dislike speaking in front of large crowds. The fact that I would be speaking in front of strangers would make me nervous. I probably wouldn’t be able to speak and make my point to the audience because I would be so scared. This would be time-wasting for everyone, in addition to being embarrassing. And I would hate it if my study was not used because I was unable to effectively communicate it and persuade the audience of its importance to our profession (Dogherty et al., 2014). The staff’s possible lack of interest in the presentation at the unit level is the potential obstacle. A staff member’s resistance to a change that they do not like or want is an example of resistance. Involving staff in the presentation is one approach to overcoming this obstacle. This approach will make them interested in their presentation. Lack of access and knowledge is another challenge. One example is ebooks that require a monthly fee, which usually puts off many readers. Utilizing peer-reviewed journals is a problem due to the accessibility and availability of these publications. Giving online users free access to such journals is one approach to resolving this obstacle (Scullion, 2002)ReferencesDogherty, E. J., Harrison, M., Graham, I., & Keeping-Burke, L. (2014). Examining the use of facilitation within guideline dissemination and implementation studies in nursing. JBI Evidence Implementation, 12(2), 105-127.Hagan, T. L., Schmidt, K., Ackison, G. R., Murphy, M., & Jones, J. R. (2017). Not the last word: dissemination strategies for patient-centred research in nursing. Journal of Research in Nursing, 22(5), 388–402.Scullion, P. A. (2002). Effective dissemination strategies. Nurse Researcher (through 2013), 10(1), 65.

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