question and answer

______________________________________________________________________________Pierce and Cheney (2017): ‘Focus on Generality’ section (pages 150-152) and pages 155 to 177 (the end of the chapter)***Disclaimer: Chapter 5 of the Pierce and Cheney text was assigned in C&P I- so prior objectives related to basic schedules are considered expected, critical, and foundational knowledge (that is, they are ‘fair game’ for quizzes)1. Describe why organisms who have vocal verbal behavior (language) and organisms who have a learning history of responding on ratio schedules do not typically produce scallop patterns on FI schedules.2. State the definition of a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement- be sure to include what is meant by the term ‘breakpoint’ in your definition. Give a novel example (novel here is one not discussed in class).3. Describe how Progressive Ratio Schedules of reinforcement can be used to assess reinforcer efficacy and give an example provided by the text or provide your own.4. When given graphed data, state whether steady state or transition state is occurring.5. State the definition of ratio strain and what variable controls it.6. Provide an example given in the text of ratio strain or provide your own.7. Critical refresher* what is interresponse time (IRT)-8. Critical refresher* how is an operant defined9. Describe the differences in IRTs observed on FR and VI schedules.10. State the definition of a molecular account of schedule performance11. State why, according to the molecular view, there are IRT differences between ratio and interval schedules12. State the definition of a molar account of schedule performance13. State why, according to the molar view, why there are IRT differences between ratio and interval schedules14. State that low rates of responding contact molecular contingencies and generate longer IRTs. High rates of response contact molar contingencies between rate of response and rate of reinforcement.15. State the definition of a postreinforcement pause (PRP) and the schedules that produce them.16. State the definition of an interreinforcement interval (IRI)17. State what controls the PRP on FI schedules. How long would the PRP be on a FI 30-second schedule.______________________________________________________________________________Schlinger, Derenne, and Baron (2008)18. Describe what is meant by a break and run response pattern19. State 2 reasons why researchers are interested in pausing on FR schedules20. What 4 variables affect the length of the pause on FR schedules21. What two variables influence pausing on progressive ratio schedules22. Dscribe why some researchers would conclude that the postreinforcement pause would be better referred to as the preratio pause or between ratio pause23. State that PRPs are influenced by relative changes between worsening or improving reinforcement conditions such that longer pauses occur when the upcoming ratio is higher, requires more response effort, or produces a lower magnitude of reinforcer24. State that when pauses are observed on VR schedules they are controlled by the same variables as FR schedules (ratio size and reinforcer magnitude)25. Describe why it is hypothesized that some research has shown pauses on VR schedules but other research has not.26. State that research with humans has shown that pausing occurs on FR schedules and pause very little on VR schedulesState two ways that procrastination (pausing) can be reduced

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