Discussion: Decision Making When Treating Psychological Disorders.

PLEASE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS AS INDICATED BELOW:1). ZERO (0) PLAGIARISM2). ATLEAST 5 REFERENCES, NO MORE THAN 5 YEARS3).  PLEASE SEE THE ATTACHMENT FOR RUBRIC DETAILS.4). Please review and follow the grading rubric details well, and include each component in the assignment as required. Also, follow the APA writing rules and stylePsychological disorders, such as depression, bipolar, and anxiety disorders can present several complications for patients of all ages. These disorders affect patients physically and emotionally, potentially impacting judgment, school and/or job performance, and relationships with family and friends. Since these disorders have many drastic effects on patients’ lives, it is important for advanced practice nurses to effectively manage patient care. With patient factors and medical history in mind, it is the advanced practice nurse’s responsibility to ensure the safe and effective diagnosis, treatment, and education of patients with psychological disorders.  For this Discussion, you will select an interactive media piece to practice decision-making when treating patients with psychological disorders. You will recommend the most effective pharmacotherapeutic to treat the psychological disorder presented and examine potential impacts of pharmacotherapeutics on a patient’s pathophysiology.To PrepareReview this week’s interactive media pieces and select one to focus on for this Discussion.Reflect on the decision steps in the interactive media pieces, and consider the potential impacts from the administration of the associated pharmacotherapeutics on the patient’s pathophysiology.Post a brief explanation of the psychological disorder presented and the decision steps you applied in completing the interactive media piece for the psychological disorder you selected. Then, explain how the administration of the associated pharmacotherapeutics you recommended may impact the patient’s pathophysiology. How might these potential impacts inform how you would suggest treatment plans for this patient? Be specific and provide examples.Adult/Geriatric DepressionHispanic Male With MDDBACKGROUND INFORMATIONThe client is a 70 year-old Hispanic American male who came to the United States when he was in high school with his father. His mother died back in Mexico when he was in school. He presents today to your office for an initial appointment for complaints of depression. The client was referred by his PCP after “routine” medical work-up to rule out an organic basis for his depression. He has no other health issues with the exception of some occasional back pain and “stiff” shoulders which he attributes to his current work as a laborer in a warehouse.SUBJECTIVEDuring today’s clinical interview, client reports that he always felt like an outsider as he was “teased” a lot for being “black” in high school. States that he had few friends, and basically kept to himself. He describes his home life as “good.” Stating “Dad did what he could for us, there were 8 of us.” He also reports a remarkably diminished interest in engaging in usual activities, states that he has gained 15 pounds in the last 2 months. He is also troubled with insomnia which began about 6 months ago, but have been progressively getting worse. He does report poor concentration which he reports is getting in “trouble” at work.MENTAL STATUS EXAMThe client is alert, oriented to person, place, time, and event. He is casually dressed. Speech is clear, but soft. He does not readily make eye contact, but when he does, it is only for a few moments. He is endorsing feelings of depression. Affect is somewhat constricted, but improves as the clinical interview progresses. He denies visual or auditory hallucinations, no overt delusional or paranoid thought processes readily apparent. Judgment and insight appear grossly intact. He is currently denying suicidal or homicidal ideation. You administer the “Montgomery- Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)” and obtained a score of 51 (indicating severe depression).RESOURCES§ Montgomery, S. A., & Asberg, M. (1979). A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 382-389.Decision Point OneDecision Point OneSelect what you should do:Begin zoloft 25 mg orally dailyRESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONEClient returns to clinic in four weeksReports a 25% decrease in symptomsClient is concerned over the new onset of erectile dysfunctionDecision Point OneBegin Effexor XR 37.5 mg orally dailyRESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONEClient returns to clinic in four weeksClient reports that there is no change in depressive symptoms at allDecision Point OneBegin Phenelzine 15 mg orally TIDRESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONEClient returns to clinic in four weeksClient reports that he was rushed to the Emergency Room 2 weeks ago after collapsing at the warehouse where he works. He was taken by ambulance to the local community hospital. He was diagnosed with postural hypotensionClient was treated with fluid bolus and told to stop taking his phenelzine and to follow up with his primary care provider within one week, and you within that same time frame.Decision Point TwoSelect what you should do next:Decision Point TwoRestart Phenelzine and counsel client on dietary choices and importance of hydrationRESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWOClient reports that although he had no more episodes of passing out, he has been dizzy when he gets up at night to use the bathroomClient also reports that at various times throughout the day when he goes from a sitting to a standing position, he feels light-headedDecision Point TwoPhenelzine is not reinitiated. Instead, we began therapy with Lexapro 20 mg orally daily after an appropriate “wash out” period (5 half-lives).RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWOClient returns to clinic in four weeksClient had no more syncopal episodes or episodes of orthostatic hypotensionClient reports a decrease in depressive symptoms by approximately 25 percent on the MADR scaleDecision Point TwoRe-start Phenelzine 7.5 mg orally TIDRESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWOClient returns to clinic in four weeksClient reported that he still has a little dizzinessClient also reports that that his depression has improved greatly (a 35% decrease in MADR scale from 51 to 33)Decision Point ThreeSelect what you should do next:Decision Point ThreeContinue current drug dose and counsel client on dietary modifications and orthostatic hypotension safetyGuidance to StudentThe initiation of an SSRI or SNRI should not begin until an adequate “wash out” period of MAOI- this is generally defined as the time it takes for 5 half-lives of the drug to be metabolized. Co-administration of SSRI, SNRI, or TCA with MAOI is contraindicated as it can cause serotonin syndrome and can actually be fatal. You can continue the current dose and counsel client as to dietary modifications as well as orthostatic hypotension safety, however, it should be remembered that he works in a warehouse and may be at risk for falls/injury due to orthostatic hypotension. A “watch and wait” approach may be appropriate if the client has failed all other antidepressants. Increasing the dose back to 15 mg orally TID is not indicated as his orthostatic hypotension will likely worsen.

 
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